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Asako Nakamura: Blood-based DNA damage assay to identify exposed population in Fukushima

Posted By SIT Vodcast Team, Tuesday, March 24, 2015
Updated: Monday, March 30, 2015

Sylvain Costes and our new Podcast member Allison Burrell have the pleasure to interview Asako Nakamura from Ibaraki University, a principal investigator working at the Department of Biological Production Science in Ibaraki-ken, Japan. This is a special vodcast done at the Radiation Research Society meeting in Las Vegas in September 2014 where Dr. Asako Nakamura  presented a poster describing how the DNA double strand break foci assay can be used to identify populations continuously exposed to ionizing radiation in and around Fukushima. For that purpose, blood from cows located in various sites around Fukushima were tested for DNA damage and compared to control groups. This work highlights the usefulness of biomarkers to identify exposed populations after a nuclear accident.

The abstract: The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident was one of the worst nuclear disasters in human history and resulted in widespread radiation contamination over large habitable areas. Several studies have documented the distribution of radionuclides in soil samples and animal organs throughout the contaminated region. However, assessing how such contamination affects the health of living organisms requires different techniques. One key consequence of ionizing radiation is the induction of DNA damage. One type of DNA damage, the double-strand break (DSB) can be sensitively quantitated utilizing the induced phosphorylation of histone H2AX at DSB sites. The creation of a DNA DSB in eukaryotic cells is generally accompanied by the formation of hundreds of phosphorylated H2AX (γ-H2AX) molecules in the chromatin flanking the DSB site. Antibodies to γ-H2AX allow the visualization of a "focus" at the DSB site. These foci form the basis of many biodosimetry assays used in both basic and clinical research to quantify radiation-induced DSBs. One of these assays utilizes lymphocytes in blood samples taken non-invasively by phlebotomy. Here, we evaluate the biological effects of the radiation fallout in the region surrounding the FNPP by quantifying DSBs in blood lymphocytes taken from cattle grazing in the exclusion zone. Our finding reveal that a greater than two-fold increase in fraction of damaged lymphocytes is observed in all cohorts within the 20 km exclusion zone in Fukushima. While levels of DNA damage slightly decrease over 700-days period of sample collection, the extent of damage appeared to be independent of the distance from the accident site within the exclusion zone. This study is the first to evaluate the biological impact of the accident utilizing the γ-H2AX assay.

Tags:  Biomarkers  DNA damage  radiation accident 

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Interview with Michael Scholtz

Posted By Administration, Tuesday, January 29, 2013
Updated: Monday, April 22, 2013

 

The November 2012 podcast features an interview with Michel Scholtz from GSI Darmstadt, Germany, senior author of the paper entitled Modeling Cell Survival after Photon Irradiation Based on Double-Strand Break Clustering in Megabase Pair Chromatin Loops appearing in the November 2012 issue of Radiation Research. The interview is hosted by Massimo Pinto and touches on the research efforts of Michael Scholtz, and his colleagues, who have been focused for a long time toward a deeper understanding of the biological effects of high linear energy transfer radiations that are used in cancer therapy with accelerated ion beams. Their more recent work that Michael Scholtz describes in this interview focuses on modeling the biological impact of clustered vs isolated DNA double strand breaks induced by photon irradiation, as a means to better understand some complexities that have emerged in their earlier investigations with high-LET radiation.

Tags:  DNA damage  DNA repair  Modeling 

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Bystander-Type Effects Mediated by Long-Lived Inflammatory Signaling in Irradiated Bone MArrow

Posted By Administration, Thursday, March 29, 2012
Updated: Monday, April 22, 2013

 

Our March 2012 podcast features an interview with Dr. Eric. G. Wright, senior author of the paper entitled Bystander-Type Effects Mediated by Long-Lived Inflammatory Signaling in Irradiated Bone Marrow. Dr. Wright is located at the Centre for Oncology and Molecular Medicine at the University of Dundee Medical School in Scotland. The interview is hosted by Marjan Boerma.

Tags:  Bystander effects  DNA damage  Low-LET 

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Modeling the Influence of Histone Proteins on the Sensitivity of DNA to Ionizing Radiation

Posted By Administration, Wednesday, February 29, 2012
Updated: Monday, April 22, 2013

Our February 2012 podcast features an interview with Dr. Jamie Milligan, senior author of the paper entitled Modeling the Influence of Histone Proteins on the Sensitivity of DNA to Ionizing Radiation. The interview is hosted by Sylvain Costes.

Tags:  chromatin  countermeasures  DNA damage  Low-LET 

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Late Residual DNA Damage Margers In Vivo

Posted By Administration, Friday, February 26, 2010
Updated: Monday, April 22, 2013

Our interview of the month is with Robert Bristow, in which we discuss his recent work which appeared in the January issue of the Journal. The paper isentitled Late Residual γ-H2AX Foci In Murine Skin are Dose Responsive and Predict Radiosensitivity In Vivo no access

Any comments as to the content of the interview are encouraged.

Tags:  Biomarkers  DNA damage  radiation accident 

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Comparison of Several Radiation Effects in Human MCF10A Mammary Epithelial Cells Cultured as 2D Monolayers or 3D Acinar Stuctures in Matrigel.

Posted By Administration, Thursday, July 9, 2009
Updated: Monday, April 22, 2013

Welcome to the June issue of the Radiation Research podcast, live from the "Heavy Ions in Therapy And Space Symposium 2009″, held in Cologne, Germany.

Dr. Sylvain Costes (Lawrence Berkeley Lab) interviews Dr Joel Bedford (Colorado State University), last author of a paper appeared in the June issue of Radiation Research and entitled Comparison of Several Radiation Effects in Human MCF10A Mammary Epithelial Cells Cultured as 2D Monolayers or 3D Acinar Stuctures in Matrigel.

Tags:  Biomarkers  cell death  chromosomal aberration  DNA damage  Low-LET 

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The March 2009 Radiation Research Podcast

Posted By Administration, Monday, March 30, 2009
Updated: Monday, April 22, 2013

In this month’s episode, an interview with Marlis Frankenberg-Schwager from the Department of Nuclear Medicine at the University of Goettingen, Germany.

The title of her manuscript was: Single-Strand Annealing, Conservative Homologous Recombination, Nonhomologous DNA End Joining, and the Cell Cycle-Dependent Repair of DNA Double-Strand Breaks Induced by Sparsely or Densely Ionizing Radiation.

Your views on this podcast are most welcome.

Tags:  cell death  DNA damage  DNA repair  High-LET  Low-LET 

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