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Asako Nakamura: Blood-based DNA damage assay to identify exposed population in Fukushima

Posted By SIT Vodcast Team, Tuesday, March 24, 2015
Updated: Monday, March 30, 2015

Sylvain Costes and our new Podcast member Allison Burrell have the pleasure to interview Asako Nakamura from Ibaraki University, a principal investigator working at the Department of Biological Production Science in Ibaraki-ken, Japan. This is a special vodcast done at the Radiation Research Society meeting in Las Vegas in September 2014 where Dr. Asako Nakamura  presented a poster describing how the DNA double strand break foci assay can be used to identify populations continuously exposed to ionizing radiation in and around Fukushima. For that purpose, blood from cows located in various sites around Fukushima were tested for DNA damage and compared to control groups. This work highlights the usefulness of biomarkers to identify exposed populations after a nuclear accident.

The abstract: The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident was one of the worst nuclear disasters in human history and resulted in widespread radiation contamination over large habitable areas. Several studies have documented the distribution of radionuclides in soil samples and animal organs throughout the contaminated region. However, assessing how such contamination affects the health of living organisms requires different techniques. One key consequence of ionizing radiation is the induction of DNA damage. One type of DNA damage, the double-strand break (DSB) can be sensitively quantitated utilizing the induced phosphorylation of histone H2AX at DSB sites. The creation of a DNA DSB in eukaryotic cells is generally accompanied by the formation of hundreds of phosphorylated H2AX (γ-H2AX) molecules in the chromatin flanking the DSB site. Antibodies to γ-H2AX allow the visualization of a "focus" at the DSB site. These foci form the basis of many biodosimetry assays used in both basic and clinical research to quantify radiation-induced DSBs. One of these assays utilizes lymphocytes in blood samples taken non-invasively by phlebotomy. Here, we evaluate the biological effects of the radiation fallout in the region surrounding the FNPP by quantifying DSBs in blood lymphocytes taken from cattle grazing in the exclusion zone. Our finding reveal that a greater than two-fold increase in fraction of damaged lymphocytes is observed in all cohorts within the 20 km exclusion zone in Fukushima. While levels of DNA damage slightly decrease over 700-days period of sample collection, the extent of damage appeared to be independent of the distance from the accident site within the exclusion zone. This study is the first to evaluate the biological impact of the accident utilizing the γ-H2AX assay.

Tags:  Biomarkers  DNA damage  radiation accident 

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Gene Expression Signatures for Radiation Triage

Posted By Administration, Friday, April 8, 2011
Updated: Monday, April 22, 2013

This month’s podcast features an interview with Sunirmal Paul and Sally Amundson from Columbia University, New York, who are first and last author of a paper entitled: Prediction of In Vivo Radiation Dose Status in Radiotherapy Patients using Ex Vivo and In Vivo Gene Expression Signatures.
Happy listening!

Tags:  microarray  radiation accident 

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Late Residual DNA Damage Margers In Vivo

Posted By Administration, Friday, February 26, 2010
Updated: Monday, April 22, 2013

Our interview of the month is with Robert Bristow, in which we discuss his recent work which appeared in the January issue of the Journal. The paper isentitled Late Residual γ-H2AX Foci In Murine Skin are Dose Responsive and Predict Radiosensitivity In Vivo no access

Any comments as to the content of the interview are encouraged.

Tags:  Biomarkers  DNA damage  radiation accident 

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The October 2008 Radiation Research Podcast

Posted By Administration, Sunday, November 2, 2008
Updated: Tuesday, April 23, 2013

Welcome to the October 2008 Radiation Research Podcast.
PLAY PODCAST

In her News Minute, Vered introduces our FaceBook group,which will give you listeners an extra opportunity to contribute toward the content of this podcast. At the time of publishing this podcast, the group lists 35 members. So…check it out!

The interview of the month is curated by Sylvain Costes, who spoke to David Cassatt, a program officer at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID) at the NIH. NIAID encourages communication among academic and industry/commercial researchers as well as government agencies involved in medical countermeasure development and drug candidate approval. To this end, on September 17–18, 2007 in Bethesda, MD, the NIAID Radiation Countermeasures Program sponsored a workshop on "Medical Countermeasures against Nuclear Threats: Radionuclide Decorporation Agents”.Dr. Cassatt discusses here his October 2008 Radiation Research article summarizing this workshop. Presentation slides from the workshop can also be found at http:/ /www3.niaid.nih.gov/research/topics/radnuc/MeetingSlides.htm.

This podcast issue is open to your comments.

Tags:  countermeasures  nuclear threats  radiation accident 

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The May 2008 Radiation Research Podcast

Posted By Administration, Saturday, May 31, 2008
Updated: Tuesday, April 23, 2013

The May 2008 Radiation Research podcast is presented by Massimo.

Massimo spoke to Jean-Marc Bertho (pictured left) from IRSN, France, first author of the paper New Biological Indicators to Evaluate and Monitor Radiation-Induced Damage: An Accident Case Report.
The paper deals with a radiation accident in France and a discussion on biological indicators of radiation damage in a human individual.

Sara Rockwell, Editor-in-Chief of Radiation Research, highlights the new NIH policies that dictate public access of scientific papers on the NIH repository PubMed Central, and introduces some of the papers in this month’s issue of Radiation Research.

We welcome your comments to this podcast here.

Tags:  Biomarkers  radiation accident 

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