All manuscripts should be submitted through the journal’s online submission and peer review system at http://radiatres.allentrack.net.



Radiation Research publishes original articles dealing with radiation effects and related subjects in the areas of physics, chemistry, biology and medicine, including epidemiology and translational research. The term radiation is used in its broadest sense and includes specifically ionizing radiation and ultraviolet, visible and infrared light as well as microwaves, ultrasound and heat. Effects may be physical, chemical or biological. Related subjects include (but are not limited to) dosimetry methods and instrumentation, isotope techniques and studies with chemical agents contributing to the understanding of radiation effects.


lar Papers

As a rule, regular papers should not exceed 40 double-spaced pages including references, footnotes, tables, figures and legends. The general guidelines for form outlined below should be followed.


Short Communications

Short Communications of intriguing preliminary findings should not exceed 15 double-spaced pages including references, footnotes, tables, figures and legends. Regular papers and submissions to the Short Communications section will be reviewed similarly, and Short Communications will not generally enjoy significantly faster publication times than do regular contributions.


Commentaries and Meeting Reports

The Editor will invite or consider from time to time submissions that deal with subjects of interest and that do not fall into the other categories of manuscripts. The commentary should be of interest, important and factually correct, but it can express unaccepted views that have not been shown to be unequivocally incorrect. Commentaries will be reviewed to ensure that facts are correct but not to eliminate hypotheses or reasonable speculation.


The Editor will also consider meeting reports that are accompanied by commentaries. The commentary will be published both in print and online; the meeting report will be published online only. Both the commentary and the meeting report will be indexed on PubMed, and both will be available online as open access articles. The cost of publishing a commentary is $65 per typeset page plus $500 for full open access. The cost of the accompanying meeting report is $75 per typeset page, which includes full open access.


Letters to the Editor

The Editor will consider substantive comments on papers and Editorials published in the journal. The authors should select the most appropriate format for presenting their communication.



The Editor frequently invites or considers review articles covering areas of interest to the readership. Suggestions for topics and authors are encouraged. The journal also publishes book reviews, obituaries and updates on issues of interest to readers.




Manuscripts are accepted for review with the expectation that the highest ethical standards have been followed during the performance of the research described in the manuscript and during the preparation and submission of the manuscript. Similarly, all those involved in the review process are expected to adhere to the highest standards during and after the review. In general, the expectations of Radiation Research are in accord with those described by the Council of Science Editors (http://www.councilscienceeditors.org), the International committee of Medical Journal Editors (http://www.icmje.org), and the World Association of Medical Editors (http://www.wame.org/). Detailed discussions of specific ethical issues can be found on the websites of those organizations. If ethical questions arise concerning the preparation, submission, review or publication of a paper, these should be discussed with the Editor-in-Chief. Several specific expectations are outlined in a separate document (http://radiatres.allentrack.net/ethics.pdf).




All text, including the abstract, references and figure legends, should be double-spaced. Page 1 should contain the article title, author names(s) and affiliations(s), and a proposed running title not exceeding 50 characters including letters and spaces. The corresponding author should be identified, and complete contact information should be provided in a footnote. Identification of authorship from RRS Scholars in Training should be indicated by a superscript symbol (e.g., Adeola Y. Makinde,1,* Olivia J. Kelada2,*; *Scholar In Training).


Page 2 should contain an abstract. Proprietary terms and abbreviations should not be used. The authors names and article title should appear at the top of the abstract as follows: Bedford, J. S. and Mitchell, J. B. Dose-Rate Effects in Synchronous Mammalian Cells in Culture. Radiat. Res.


Radiation Quantities and Units

Authors should use the International System of Units (SI). Centigray (cGy) and centisievert (cSv) should be used only for values less than 1 Gy and 1 Sv, respectively.


Abbreviations and Nomenclature

Radiation Research is a multidisciplinary journal, and many abbreviations and acronyms common in one field may not be recognized by all readers. Thus these short forms should be used sparingly, and only standard abbreviations should be used.


Authors are referred to the most recent editions of the following guides for assistance with abbreviations and nomenclature: International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Recommendations on Biochemical & Organic Nomenclature, Symbols & Terminology (http://www.chem.qmul/ac/uk/iubmb); The ACS Style Guide: Scientific Style and Format 7th edition: Effective Communication of Scientific Information: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers; Mathematics into Type (Updated Edition). When there is disagreement between a style guide and the journal’s style, the journal’s style should be followed.


Authors should make every effort to use the nomenclature for genes and proteins that has been approved by the nomenclature committees for each species.


Equations and Mathematical Text

All numbered and unnumbered display equations, regardless of their complexity, should be submitted in MathType, MathType Lite or Equation Editor format in their entirety. Equations in submitted manuscripts should be editable (i.e., not images) in Microsoft Word 2008. Ending punctuation should be included in the equation, followed by a tab and the equation number in parentheses in Word text format. Typesetting will convert equations as displayed but will break equations that will not fit into a single column. Typesetting will maintain the character formatting (bold, italic, Roman)

and spacing in the electronic file. Please follow journal style by making Greek characters Roman and variables italic and by stacking superscripts and subscripts.


Mathematical expressions in the text should be in Microsoft Word text format whenever possible. Equation software should be used only for characters not found on Words Insert Symbol palette, for stacking superscripts and subscripts, or for second-level subscripts or superscripts.



The Acknowledgments section can be used to thank those individuals who provided technical support, reagents or materials, advice or other assistance to the authors during the performance of the work or the preparation of the manuscript but whose involvement does not rise to the criteria expected for authorship. This section should also identify the source(s) of support for the research presented in the paper.



All references should be cited in the text by italicized Arabic numerals in parentheses (in order of appearance). The references cited should be listed in numerical order; the list should be double-spaced. Literature cited should be limited to material in the open literature; unpublished results, private communications, etc. should be given as footnotes with adequate information as to their source and availability. The identification of unpublished results and private communications may also be made directly in the text, in parentheses.


Papers that are in press may be included in the references provided that a journal name and tentative year of publication can be verified. The DOIs should also be included if they are available.


The reference style should follow that of the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals.  (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/bsd/uniform_requirements.html) (BMJ Vancouver style of referencing)


Examples of some common reference types are given below. Reference numbers should be italicized.


Journal article with up to six authors:


1. Elmore E, Lao XY, Kapadia R, Redpath JL. The effect of dose rate on radiation-induced neoplastic transformation in vitro by low doses of low-LET radiation. Radiat Res 2006; 166:832–8.


Journal article with more than six authors:


2. Wambi C, Sanzari J, Wan XS, Nuth M, Davis J, Ko YH, et al. Dietary antioxidants protect hematopoietic cells and improve animal survival after total-body irradiation. Radiat Res 2008; 169:384–96.



3. Hall EJ, Giaccia A. Radiobiology for the radiologist. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2006.


Chapter in book:

4. Meltzer PS, Kallioniemi A, Trent JM. Chromosome alterations in human solid tumors. In: Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, editors. The genetic basis of human cancer. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002. p. 93–113.


Scientific or technical report:

5. Information needed to make radiation protection recommendations for space missions beyond low-Earth orbit. NCRP Report No. 153. Bethesda: National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements; 2006.



Footnote material should be indicated in the text by superscript Arabic numerals and should be cited consecutively throughout the article starting with the title. A double-spaced listing of footnotes should be provided on a separate page at the end of the manuscript.



Tables should be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals. The proportions of the printed page should be considered in designing the table. Footnotes to tables should be identified with superscript lowercase italic letters, a,b, etc., and placed at the bottom of the page containing the table.



Figures may be submitted in the following formats: Adobe Illustrator, PDF, Microsoft PowerPoint. Most graphics programs have the option to save figures in one or more of these formats. Please note that pasting figures created in another format into any of these programs will result in poor-quality figures that will not be acceptable.


With the exception of some chemical structures, all illustrations are to be considered as figures, and each graph, drawing or photograph should be numbered in sequence with Arabic numerals. Figures should be designed to fit the proportions of the printed page (71/8 × 9 in., 11.3 × 8.8 cm; column width 31/2 in., 8.8 cm), with originals no larger than 81/2 × 11 in. (21.3 × 27.5 cm).


If a figure contains more than one panel, each panel (A, B, etc.) should be labeled within the panel, and the same letters should be used in the text and legends. A double-spaced listing of the figure legends should be provided in the text file.


a.   Graphs and other line drawings must be of a sufficient quality for reproduction. All lines, including those used for curve fitting, should be at least 1 point in weight. The drawings should be sharp and should show a high contrast. Lettering should be large enough to be legible when the figure is reduced in print (i.e. 6 to 12 points after reduction). Symbols used to identify points within a graph should be large enough that they will be easily distinguishable when the figure is reduced. Authors are asked to limit the choice of symbols for data points to the following: ˜ ™   Grid lines that are to be reproduced must be shown in black.

b.   Halftone and color photographs should be of sufficient quality to permit accurate reproduction. The best results will be obtained if authors match the contrast and density of all figures appearing on a single plate. Magnification scales on photographs should be indicated by means of bars (). Color plates will be paid for by the author; the cost is $575 for the first figure in a paper and $300 for each additional figure. The printed and electronic versions of the journal will contain the same versions of the figures (i.e. either black and white or color in both places). Color figures should not be submitted for review if authors want the figures published in black and white or grayscale.


Supplementary Information

Authors may submit supplementary information such as data sets, tables, figures, videos and appendices that are to be published as part of the online version of the paper. The files should be referenced in the paper, and descriptions should be included under the heading Supplementary Information at the end of the article text. The charge for publishing supplementary information is $50 per file.




It is the policy of Radiation Research to acquire copyright for all articles. Ownership of copyright by one central organization tends to ensure maximum international protection against infringement and ensures that requests by third parties to reprint an article, or a part of it, are handled efficiently and in accordance with a general policy that complies with both national and international copyright legislation and that recognizes the desirability of encouraging the dissemination of knowledge. In assigning copyright, authors are not forfeiting rights to use their contribution elsewhere. The Radiation Research Society will not refuse any reasonable request by an author for permission to reproduce any of his or her contributions to the journal. Further, all requests to reproduce any contribution, or a substantial part of it, or tables or figures from it in another publication will be subject to the author’s approval. It is understood that in some cases copyright will be held by the author’s employer (for instance the U.S., UK or Canadian Government). If so, the journal requires nonexclusive permission to deal with requests from third parties, on the understanding that any requests it receives from third parties will be handled as outlined above (i.e., the author and his or her employer will be asked to approve the proposed use).




Proofs will be sent to the author by e-mail, together with copyright and page charge/reprint order forms.




The uncorrected proofs of papers will be posted on the journal site and will remain on the In Press page of the journal website (http://rrjournal.org) until the papers are published in an issue of the journal. These papers will be available to institutional subscribers and to members of the Radiation Research Society. The date on which the paper is posted will be included on the website and can be considered to be the date of first publication.




The author’s institution will be asked by the Radiation Research Society to pay a small part of the cost of publication in the form of a page charge of $65.00 per page; this entitles the institution to a PDF of the published paper. The remainder of the cost of publication is recovered through subscriptions, advertising and other sources.




The journal requires full payment of page charges plus an additional open access fee of $2000 for immediate open access on BioOne, the journal’s own site, and any repositories to which the paper is submitted. Such papers can also be freely posted on the authors or institutions websites. The open access fee compensates the journal for loss of the revenue that would otherwise support the cost of publication of the paper in the journal. Authors desiring immediate open access to their papers through funding agency repositories and institutional websites should choose this option.


To ensure the integrity of papers published on open access sites, including personal, departmental and institutional sites, Radiation Research requires that a PDF of the final paper that has been obtained from the Journal through the payment of page charges be posted on these sites.


Authors of manuscripts reporting NIH-funded work that are accepted for publication after April 7, 2008 are required by the NIH to deposit their papers in the National Library of Medicines PubMedCentral (PMC) database. Details of this policy can be found at http://publicaccess.nih.gov/. Radiation Research will deposit the PDFs in PMC on behalf of all extramurally funded authors when page charges have been paid. The Journal’s embargo period for open access on PMC is 12 months unless the authors pay for full open access, in which case the papers will be posted with immediate open access.